Inocência perdida: fotógrafo registra campo secreto de treinamentos para crianças e adolescentes na Crimeia

Agosto 27, 2014 às 6:00 am | Publicado em A criança na comunicação social | Deixe um comentário
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Notícia do site http://noticias.r7.com de 9 de junho de 2014.

Recrutas têm de 7 a 16 anos, quase todos filhos de militares da etnia cossaca

Com quase dois milhões de habitantes, a Crimeia é uma região pouco maior que o Estado do Sergipe e se tornou pivô de uma crise internacional quando a população local escolheu fazer parte da Rússia, deixando de ser parte do território ucraniano. A região tem muitos russos, e alguns deles se preparam continuamente para eventuais conflitos militares. Incrustado nas florestas de Eski-Kermen, uma fortaleza medieval construída pelo Império Bizantino nos limites da Crimeia, está um campo de treino militar para crianças e adolescentes comandado por cossacos — todos pró-Rússia

Foto: Reprodução/Maxim Dondyuk

mais fotos aqui

Reprodução Maxim Dondyuk

Reprodução/Maxim Dondyuk

Reprodução Maxim Dondyuk2

Reprodução/Maxim Dondyuk

 

The New Way of War: Killing the Kids

Julho 19, 2014 às 1:00 pm | Publicado em A criança na comunicação social | Deixe um comentário
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Artigo do The New Yorker de 4 de julho de 2014.

Photograph by Moises Saman Magnum

Photograph by Moises Saman/Magnum

 

Posted by Robin Wright

In 1994, on the eve of Rwanda’s genocide, Radio Mille Collines, in Kigali, incited listeners with a venomous message: “To kill the big rats, you have to kill the little rats.” It was a veiled command to murder the youngest generation of Tutsis, the country’s minority tribe. In less than four months, an estimated three hundred thousand children were slashed, hacked, gunned, or burned to death, according to the United Nations. Among the dead were newborns.

The Rwandan slaughter was not unique. The specific targeting of children is one of the grimmest new developments in the way conflicts have been waged over the past fifty years. In the eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth centuries, roughly half of all deaths in conflict zones were civilian, according to the U.N. During the Second World War, civilians accounted for two-thirds of the fatalities. By the twentieth century’s end, almost ninety per cent were civilian.

Children have accounted for increasingly large chunks of those deaths. In 1995, UNICEF reported that roughly two million kids had been killed in wars over the previous decade—more children than soldiers. “Children are not just getting caught in the crossfire, they are also likely to be specific targets,” Graça Machel, the Secretary-General’s Special Representative, declared in the first U.N. “Children in War” report, in 1996. She went on:

When ethnic loyalties prevail, a perilous logic clicks in. The escalation from ethnic superiority to ethnic cleansing to genocide, as we have seen, can become an irresistible process. Killing adults is then not enough; future generations of the enemy—their children—must also be eliminated.

In the twenty-first century, the escalating dangers to children in conflict zones are often overlooked amid the terrible dramas of individual loss, such as the recent killing of three Israeli teen-agers and a young Palestinian. But the worldwide numbers are unprecedented. “We’re seeing everywhere that violence against children is an epidemic, amplified in conflict situations,” Susan Bissell, UNICEF’s chief of child protection, told me this week. “One billion children are today living in countries and territories affected by war or conflict—and it’s fair to conclude that large numbers suffer violent injuries and death.”

According to the Secretary-General’s latest “Children and Armed Conflict” report, issued on Tuesday, one of the most dangerous places to be a child is Syria. To take a single example: in the spring of 2011, Hamza al-Khateeb, a pudgy thirteen-year-old, got separated from his parents during a protest against the government of Bashar al-Assad. His mutilated corpse—with gunshot wounds, cigarette burns, a shattered jaw and kneecaps, and a severed penis—was returned to the family a month later. A government medical examiner reportedly claimed that the boy had been shot during the protest, and that the disfigurement was either normal decay or faked. Pictures of the body circulated on the Internet and in Syrian media, perhaps as a warning to dissidents and parents.

Since then, at least eleven thousand Syrian children—and probably thousands more—are estimated to have died in the vicious civil war. Almost eight hundred were summarily executed, with dozens killed by chemical weapons, according to the Oxford Research Group. One of the most memorable pictures from the Syrian regime’s use of sarin nerve gas last August was the long row of little corpses, wrapped in white shrouds that exposed innocent faces, as they awaited burial.

Other kids have become collateral for combatants. As Israel searched for the three abducted teenagers, UNICEF issued a statement of “grave concern” about the May 29th kidnapping of a hundred and forty Kurdish schoolboys in northern Syria. As they were returning to their hometown from junior-high-school exams in Aleppo, they were seized and taken hostage by the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS). Four managed to escape; the rest are still missing.

Technology, ranging from nuclear weapons to small cluster bombs, has made non-combatants, especially the young, particularly vulnerable. I lived in Lebanon during its civil war. After the Israeli invasion in the nineteen-eighties, dozens of Lebanese kids were killed by cluster bombs, either in direct hits or by stepping on them or after mistaking them for toys.

When it comes to the use of insidious weaponry, nearly all sides have something to answer for. In Afghanistan, at least thirty-five thousand children have been victims of land mines since 1979, according to the U.N. Special Representative for Children and Armed Conflict. When I visited the orphanage in Kabul in 1999, during the Taliban’s rule, a turbaned official lamented losing orphans who wandered into neighborhoods where land mines or explosives had been deposited by assorted domestic and foreign militaries over the previous two decades. Fifteen years later, Afghan children are still dying from the weaponry of conflicts both old and new.

Death tolls for kids are sometimes fuzzy and often not final, even long after wars end. In Bosnia, more than a thousand children are reportedly missing from a war that ended a generation ago. Aid groups also point out that politicians, militias, and interest groups exploit child deaths—both their numbers and circumstances—for propaganda value, a recurrent controversy in counting the death toll in Iraq’s various conflicts.

Regardless of public revulsion, U.N. officials told me this week, the rising number of child casualties is unlikely to subside anytime soon. Today’s wars are increasingly within countries rather than between them; the fighting has moved to city streets, invading the playrooms of homes and kindergartens.

Photograph by Moises Saman/Magnum.

 

Ex-child soldiers live with scars of war

Maio 28, 2014 às 12:00 pm | Publicado em A criança na comunicação social | Deixe um comentário
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Reportagem do Los Angeles Times de 11 de maio de 2014.

mais fotografias da reportagem aqui

Rick Loomis Los Angeles Times

Conflict in the Central African Republic

By Alexandra Zavis | Photography by Rick Loomis

SIBUT, Central African Republic — Not long ago, Charly had all the money he needed. He had a rebel uniform that commanded fear in his hometown. He had an AK-47, and he wasn’t afraid to use it.

He was still a boy, but he felt like a man.

Now he has returned to his old life. He is once again a helpless boy. The thought of it makes him sit rigid with anger, his eyes flashing.

“See the shoes I’m wearing,” the teenager snapped, pointing at a pair of dusty blue flip-flops. The soles were so full of holes that he might as well have been barefoot.

With the rebels, he said, it was different: “I had boots, a uniform and a gun in my hand.”

With the rebels, he had power.

The conflict tearing the Central African Republic apart has not only turned neighbor against neighbor. It has brought childhood to a halt.

Children have seen their parents hacked to pieces. They have watched as boys and girls just like them were shot or maimed. Some have been forced to make cold calculations far beyond their years, taking up arms with the same fighters who upended their lives or killed their relatives.

Children have been pawns in virtually every conflict in this country plagued for decades by coups, mutinies and rebellions. When a mostly Muslim rebel coalition known as the Seleka seized power a little more than a year ago, as many as 3,500 children were in the ranks of armed groups. The number swelled to 6,000 or more as self-defense militias, mostly Christian or animist, started fighting back, UNICEF estimates.

Some, like Charly, were handed guns. Others toted cargo or were taken as sex slaves.

Children barely in their teens still accompany bands of fighters along the rutted 100-mile road from Bangui, the capital, to Charly’s hometown, Sibut. Even by day, the road is dangerous. Armed men menace travelers from makeshift roadblocks; other fighters march the winding route with rifles and machetes slung over their shoulders and protective amulets draped around their necks.

The Seleka left behind nearly 400 children when they were pushed from power in January. Even as the fighting picked up again recently, UNICEF negotiated the release of more than 1,000 others from the self-defense militias.

The agency made some of the former rebel children available to tell their stories on the condition that their precise location and their full names not be used.

On a recent day, dozens of the children were gathering on a shaded veranda here. Some were about to perform a reenactment of their lives with the rebels for visiting aid workers. They carried wooden guns, brandishing the rough-hewn toys with the ease born of experience.

Several of the children appealed to the visitors with shy, winsome smiles. A few were angry, shouting that they needed help. A pregnant young girl was pushed forward. “See what they did?” a boy said of the rebels.

Sitting on a bench in a dim, windowless room, Charly recalled the day the rebels arrived.

It was more than a year ago. He was selling soap, sugar and other goods from a market stall here. At 15, it provided his only income. His father was dead, and his mother couldn’t support him.

The fighters streamed in on motorcycles and in pickup trucks, firing their guns, ransacking homes and businesses and setting them on fire.

“They were firing everywhere,” Charly said, his voice quavering. “I abandoned everything and ran.”

The fighters were with the mostly Muslim rebel alliance. Charly is Christian.

But something was more pressing than his fear of the rebels: Survival.

“I entered the Seleka to feed myself,” Charly said.

At first, he recalled, the rebels were suspicious of the lanky local boy who appeared in their midst. Then they found out he could help them. He wasn’t afraid, and he knew the town.

“When they saw I was brave, and I could point out houses to rob, they accepted me,” he said.

He was given a Kalashnikov assault rifle and sent on patrols around his hometown. His fear was replaced by swagger.

“Everyone saw me carrying an AK,” he said. “One day, an old woman tried to curse my grandmother. I was furious, so I shot her in the foot.”

At 14, Jordy doesn’t look much taller than the gun he carried for the rebels.

“It was a way to protect myself, and it was a way to survive,” he said.

It was also a way to seek revenge against the Seleka fighter he said killed his brother and a cousin. One day, he spotted the man. Jordy wanted to shoot him, but other rebels intervened, he said dully.

He doesn’t like what he did with the Seleka.

“I did a lot of bad things,” he said, eyes downcast. “I ransacked. I pillaged. I took people’s things by force.”

When the rebels continued their advance on Bangui, Jordy, Charly and other youths went with them. Some were forced to go, but others were enticed by the prospect of looting in the capital.

Jordy’s grandmother, who has cared for him since his parents separated years ago, followed him to Bangui to beg for his release. His commander agreed, but at first Jordy didn’t want to go.

“When I saw them starting to kill people, that’s when I left,” he said.

Jordy was fortunate to have his grandmother plead his case. Other children don’t even know where their relatives are — hundreds of thousands have fled their homes in the fighting. Humanitarian workers who are caring for some of the former fighters and sex slaves can spend months trying to locate the children’s families.

Even when family members can be traced, they may be reluctant to accept a former fighter into their homes. And children who are used to carrying weapons can find it hard to obey their parents.

Jordy said he hasn’t had any trouble with the mostly Christian and animist militias that are now ascendant in this area. He shares the same religion and ethnicity as the fighters.

“They even gave us food,” he said.

But in Bangui, militia members ransacked a center that helps the children; a boy who tried to join the anti-Muslim militias was killed when the fighters learned that he’d previously been with the Seleka.

And here in Sibut, some neighbors can’t forgive the children for joining the rebels. Not long ago, a man who recognized Jordy assaulted him in the street, knocking him down.

Charly was sitting with Jordy as he told of being beaten. He put his arm around his friend, and they were two boys together against the world.

Mireille was 14 when a rebel colonel spotted her last year selling homemade alcohol by the side of the road. He announced that he wanted to marry her.

“I said, ‘No, I’m still young,’ ” recalled the slender girl with intricately braided hair. She sat hunched on a bench as she told her story, wringing her hands in her lap.

That night, the rebel showed up at her home, where she was alone with three siblings. Their widowed mother was out of town at a funeral.

Mireille was taken to a Seleka base. The colonel gave her a new name, Kadija. And he raped her repeatedly.

None of the other rebels were allowed to touch her. The colonel assigned an aide to watch her when he went out looting.

“I wanted to escape, but I couldn’t because everyone had weapons,” she said.

After several months, the colonel lost interest in Mireille and took other “wives,” including her older sister. Mireille doesn’t know what happened to her. She tries not to think about it.

The reunification process has been especially fraught for the 78 girls freed by the Seleka. Like Mireille, most were sexually abused. Their families and communities often consider them tainted.

It took two weeks for Mireille’s mother to allow her into the house again. At first, she stayed with neighbors who prevailed upon her mother, arguing that it wasn’t Mireille’s fault she had been taken. Church members also spoke on her behalf.

Today Mireille has no interest in getting married or starting a family. The colonel ended those dreams.

Over and over, she used the same words for what he did to her: “He deflowered me.”

She said she’d heard later that the colonel had died in battle. Her voice betrayed no emotion.

Many children still march with the fighters. Those who have left struggle to find a way forward.

Mireille said she’d like to go back to school, maybe learn to sew. But schools in her area have been closed for months.

Jordy said he would like to try farming. “If the NGO here can help me to get cows, just so I can have some money, that will help,” he said.

Charly has already been approached by militias on the other side, eager to take advantage of his knowledge of the Seleka.

He regrets ever leaving the world of men to take care of his ailing mother.

“With a gun,” he said, “you always have money.”

Contact the reporters | Follow Alexandra Zavis (@alexzavis) and Rick Loomis (@RickLoomis) on Twitter

 

 

 

 

Centenas de milhares de crianças continuam a ser soldados

Fevereiro 13, 2014 às 11:17 am | Publicado em Divulgação | Deixe um comentário
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Notícia do site da Amnistia Internacional Portugal de 12 de Fevereiro de 2014.

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Os conflitos armados na República Centro Africana e no Sudão do Sul voltaram a centrar atenções na utilização de crianças como soldados – mas estes não são os únicos países onde rapazes e raparigas são forçados a combater, numa violação flagrante de direitos humanos.

Neste Dia Internacional Contra a utilização de crianças soldado, 12 de fevereiro, há ainda pelo menos 19 países onde é feito o recrutamento de crianças para combate. E, apesar de ser muito difícil avaliar os números exatos, a Unicef estima que todos os dias estejam envolvidas centenas de milhares de crianças em conflitos armados, submetidos a situações extremas, forçados a cometer atrocidades, que sofrem maus tratos, violações e testemunham assassinatos.

Além da República Centro Africana e do Sudão do Sul, há registo atual de existência de crianças-soldados também no Afeganistão, Chade, Colômbia, Costa do Marfim, Filipinas, Índia, Iraque, Líbano, Líbia, Mali, Myanmar, Paquistão, República Democrática do Congo (na fotografia, rapaz-soldado recrutado pelo movimento rebelde, em 2009), Sudão, Síria, Tailândia e Iémen.

Só na República Centro Africana, mergulhada em crise desde a deposição, em março passado, do Presidente François Bozizé, o número de crianças que estão a ser usadas nos combates entre os ex-rebeldes armados Séléka (maioritariamente muçulmanos) e as milícias anti-balaka (cristãos) deve ascender a seis mil. Dados apurados pela Amnistia Internacional indicam que neste país a maioria das crianças obrigadas a combater são do sexo masculino; mas também as raparigas são recrutadas à força, frequentemente violadas e sujeitas a escravidão sexual ou a serem “esposas” dos comandantes militares.

Só na República Centro Africana, mergulhada em crise desde a deposição, em março passado, do Presidente François Bozizé, o número de crianças que estão a ser usadas nos combates entre os ex-rebeldes armados Séléka (maioritariamente muçulmanos) e as milícias anti-balaka (cristãos) deve ascender a seis mil. Dados apurados pela Amnistia Internacional indicam que neste país a maioria das crianças obrigadas a combater são do sexo masculino; mas também as raparigas são recrutadas à força, frequentemente violadas e sujeitas a escravidão sexual ou a serem “esposas” dos comandantes militares.

Em 2013 foram alcançados alguns progressos, tendo várias delegações das Nações Unidas encetado diálogo com algum sucesso junto de 21 fações em conflito, do que resultaram 18 planos de ação junto de forças e grupos armados em vários países.

Na República Democrática do Congo, o Governo firmou com as Nações Unidas um plano de ação para erradicar o recrutamento de crianças no país. Na Somália, o governo federal provisório comprometeu-se igualmente a medidas que visam pôr fim ao assassinato e mutilação de crianças – um primeiro passo dado neste país por uma das partes envolvidas no conflito.

O Iémen assumiu também o compromisso de trabalhar com equipas das Nações Unidas para elaborar medidas concretas para erradicar o recrutamento e utilização de crianças por parte das forças armadas no país. E no Chade, o Governo tem vindo a intensificar esforços com o objetivo de cumprir em pleno o plano de ação, firmado em 2011, que visa pôr fim ao uso de crianças pelo Exército Nacional do Chade.

Entre as centenas de milhares de rapazes e raparigas recrutadas por forças ou grupos armados pelo mundo fora nem todos participam ativamente em combates. A muitos são dadas tarefas de apoio, como a de moverem soldados feridos para fora das linhas de batalha, de transportarem munições, de espiarem os inimigos ou servirem de mensageiros e, no caso das raparigas, forçadas à servidão sexual. Mas todos testemunham atos de violência ou são obrigados a cometê-los.

A Amnistia Internacional, a par de outras ONG, instam os países que ainda não ratificaram o Protocolo Facultativo à Convenção sobre os Direitos da Criança relativo ao envolvimento de crianças em conflitos armados a fazê-lo prontamente. Atualmente, este documento foi ratificado já por 152 países, incluindo Portugal; 22 outros não o assinaram nem ratificaram, e 20 apenas o assinaram.

Aquela ferramenta jurídica internacional assegura que nenhuma criança seja usada como soldado, tendo aumentado a idade mínima para a participação direta em hostilidades armadas dos 15 para os 18 anos e obrigando os países signatários a adotarem legislação em caso de não cumprimento, a impedirem o recrutamento de crianças e a proporcionar meios de recuperação das crianças que sejam desmobilizadas.

 

InfoCEDI n.º 46 subordinado ao tema Crianças Soldado

Agosto 14, 2013 às 1:00 pm | Publicado em CEDI, Estudos sobre a Criança | Deixe um comentário
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infocedi

Já está disponível para consulta e download o nosso InfoCEDI n.º 46. Esta é uma compilação abrangente e actualizada de dissertações, estudos, citações e endereços de sites sobre Crianças Soldado.

Todos os documentos apresentados estão disponíveis on-line e pode aceder a eles directamente do InfoCEDI, Aqui

Children and armed conflict Report of the Secretary-General to the Security Council

Junho 30, 2013 às 1:10 pm | Publicado em Relatório | Deixe um comentário
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The annual report of the Secretary-General on children and armed  conflict presents information about grave violations committed against children in 22 country situations. The report also includes what is known as the “List of shame”. This is the list of  armed groups and armed forces who recruit and use children, kill and maim, commit sexual violence or attacks on schools and hospitals in conflict zones.

Conversando sobre Direitos Humanos e da Criança – III Ciclo de Conferências na ESEL de Lisboa

Abril 20, 2013 às 1:00 pm | Publicado em Divulgação | Deixe um comentário
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ciclo

Escola Superior de Educação de Lisboa Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa

Campus de Benfica do IPL 1549 – 003 Lisboa

telefone: 217115500 fax: 217166147 e.mail: eselx@eselx.ipl.pt url: www.eselx.ipl.pt

UNICEF Humanitarian Action for Children 2013

Janeiro 28, 2013 às 3:00 pm | Publicado em Estudos sobre a Criança | Deixe um comentário
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UNICEF’s Humanitarian Action for Children 2013 highlights the humanitarian situationfaced by millions of children and women and the support required to help their families, communities and national institutions meet their basic needs, promote their well-being and provide them with protection.

UNICEF is appealing for almost US$1.4 billion to assist millions of children, women and men by providing them with nutritional support, health care, water, sanitation, learning spaces and materials, protection services, shelter and information. This support is not only to provide lifesaving emergency interventions, but also to strengthen national preparedness systems and build resilience at community, subregional and national levels, so that avoidable illnesses and deaths are prevented and those affected are able to recover. In partnership with national governments, civil society organizations and other United Nations agencies, UNICEF works in some of the most challenging environments in the world to deliver results for millions of children and women threatened by natural disasters or complex emergencies. Despite challenges and constraints, sustained advocacy, political and financial commitment, and collaboration in 2012 resulted in achievements that need to be built upon and continued into 2013.

São precisos 1.4 mil milhões de dólares agora para as crianças afectadas pelas crises humanitárias, afirma a UNICEF

Janeiro 28, 2013 às 2:00 pm | Publicado em A criança na comunicação social | Deixe um comentário
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Texto da Unicef.pt de 25 de Janeiro de 2013.

Mais informações no site da Unicef.org

Acção Humanitária para as Crianças 2013

São precisos 1.4 mil milhões de dólares agora para as crianças afectadas pelas crises humanitárias, afirma a UNICEF

GENEBRA, 25 de Janeiro de 2013 – A UNICEF lançou hoje um apelo no montante de cerca de 1.4 mil milhões de dólares para satisfazer as necessidades cruciais imediatas das crianças em 45 países e regiões afectadas por conflitos, catástrofes naturais e outras emergências complexas durante o corrente ano.

Os fundos angariados no âmbito deste apelo anual destinar-se-ão também à melhoria da preparação para catástrofes, e ao reforço da resiliência das comunidades para enfrentar ou minimizar o impacte de novas crises

“Estamos ainda no primeiro mês de 2013, que já se revelou duro para milhões de crianças que sofrem na Síria e para os inúmeros refugiados que tiveram de fugir para os países vizinhos. No Mali e na República Centro-Africana o conflito tem vindo a agravar-se, ameaçando a vida das crianças e das mulheres”, afirmou Ted Chaiban, Director dos Programas de Emergência da UNICEF. “As crianças são extremamente vulneráveis em situações de emergência que, na maior parte dos casos, as deixam em condições de insegurança, em risco de contraírem doenças, expostas à violência, exploração e negligência.

O apelo da UNICEF Acção Humanitária para as Crianças 2013 inclui países que actualmente ocupam lugar de destaque nas notícias e também muitos outros que têm uma cobertura mediática muito menor, tais como Chade, Colômbia, Etiópia, Filipinas, Somália e Iémen, mas que também precisam de atenção e assistência urgentes.

“A complexa emergência na Síria representa um enfoque importante da resposta global da UNICEF em matéria de ajuda humanitária” afirmou Chaiban. “Mas estamos também a conseguir resultados para as crianças em contextos de emergência muito difíceis e amplamente esquecidos em várias partes do mundo.”

Mais de 85 por cento do financiamento necessário destina-se a situações humanitárias para além da que se vive hoje na Síria e da crise de refugiados associada ao conflito naquele país.

Os 45 países e regiões incluídos neste apelo são prioritários devido à dimensão da crise, à urgência do seu impacte nas crianças e mulheres, à complexidade da resposta e à capacidade para a concretizar.
As contribuições para este apelo da UNICEF para 2013 irão permitir à organização levar por diante o trabalho realizado em 2012.

Alguns dos resultados alcançados entre Janeiro e Outubro de 2012 incluem:

• Saúde: 38.3 milhões de crianças imunizadas • Água e Saneamento e Higiene: 12.4 milhões de pessoas passaram a ter acesso a água em condições para beber, cozinhar e se lavarem.
• Educação: 3 milhões de crianças passaram a ter acesso a um ensino em melhores condições.
• Protecção Infantil: 2.4 milhões de crianças beneficiaram de serviços de protecção.
• Nutrição: 2 milhões de crianças receberam tratamento para a má nutrição grave e aguda.
• HIV/SIDA: 1 milhão de pessoas teve acesso a testes para o despiste do vírus, aconselhamento e tratamento.

Em 2012, a falta de financiamento em vários países como Madagáscar e Colômbia deixou muitas necessidades por satisfazer.

Em muitos países, o acesso, a segurança e a capacidade dos parceiros no terreno são também alguns dos principais constrangimentos para a prestação de ajuda humanitária.

“As contribuições para este apelo são investimentos efectivos nas crianças e no seu futuro”, acrescentou Ted Chaiban.

“A UNICEF pretende obter financiamento que permita à organização responder de um modo consistente às emergências subfinanciadas ou àquelas que apresentam maiores carências, aplicar soluções inovadoras a situações complexas e integrar o processo de recuperação na resposta às emergências de grande escala – muitas das quais abrangem vários países ao mesmo tempo.”

War Child Jam Vídeo

Novembro 8, 2012 às 6:00 am | Publicado em Vídeos | Deixe um comentário
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