Como os bebés decidem com quem falar

Janeiro 22, 2015 às 12:00 pm | Publicado em Estudos sobre a Criança | Deixe um comentário
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texto do site  http://www.futurity.org  de 12 de janeiro de 2014.

Dean Wissing  Flickr

How babies decide who to ‘chat up’

McGill University, New York University rightOriginal Study

Posted by James Devitt-NYU on January 12, 2015

Babies who understand only one language just assume that other people do, too.

A new study—that also finds the same assumption is not held by bilingual babies—may clarify how babies decide who is worth having a “conversation” with, researchers say.

“Our results not only offer insight into infants’ perception of linguistic abilities, but, more importantly, may help us better understand whom they see as good communication partners,” says Athena Vouloumanos, associate professor of psychology at New York University and coauthor of the study that is published in the journal Cognition.

“Knowing who might make a good communication partner may enhance learning about the many aspects of the world that we learn about from others, including our native languages,” says coauthor Kristine Onishi, an associate professor at McGill University.

Adults of course recognize that others can understand multiple languages. However, it’s less clear if infants share this type of perception.

Babies gaze longer

For the study, researchers examined the responses of both monolingual and bilingual 20-month-olds as they observed a series of interactions between adults with whom the infants were unfamiliar. Here, two adult speakers told an adult listener the location of a ball hidden inside cups using either the same (English or Spanish) or two different languages, which included English and another language (French and Spanish).

Following verbal instruction in one language, the adult always found the ball. Then, in one version of the scenario, the adult following the verbal instruction from a second speaker searched correctly for the ball; in a second version, the adult searched incorrectly (the infants had previously seen where the ball was hidden so knew its correct location).

The researchers employed a commonly used method to measure infants’ expectations: looking time. Previous research has shown that a longer gaze indicates that infants see something they did not expect and therefore visually engage with it longer.

The results show that infants’ expectations about whether the unfamiliar adult was monolingual or multilingual varied the infants’ own language background.

For instance, after the listener gave evidence of understanding one language (by searching for the ball in the correct location), both monolingual and bilingual infants looked longer when the listener then searched incorrectly after receiving information from a second speaker using this same language.

The longer look suggested the infants expected the adult to seek out the ball in the other (i.e., correct) location. However, when information was provided in two different languages, only monolingual infants looked longer when the listener reached correctly; in contrast, bilingual infants looked equally at both outcomes.

That is, monolingual infants, surprisingly, did not expect the adult to understand a second language, even when this second language was the infants’ own language—for example, English-speaking monolingual infants who saw an unfamiliar person respond correctly to Spanish did not then expect that person would understand English.

“The monolingual infants assumed that an unfamiliar person would understand only one language while bilingual infants did not, suggesting that infants do not expect all speech to convey information to all people,” says Vouloumanos.

NYU’s Dean’s undergraduate research fund and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada funded the study.

Source: NYU

 

Falar com o bebé ajuda-o a fazer amigos

Janeiro 21, 2015 às 10:00 am | Publicado em Estudos sobre a Criança | Deixe um comentário
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Notícia da Pais & Filhos de 14 de janeiro de 2015.

o estudo citado na notícia é o seguinte:

Listen up! Speech is for thinking during infancy

Mother and Baby kissing and hugging. Happy Family

A importância de falar com os bebés desde o nascimento foi recentemente confirmada por investigadores norte-americanos, os quais garantem que quanto mais habituadas as crianças estiverem a ouvir conversas – mesmo que inicialmente não consigam responder – melhores ferramentas sociais possuíram quando forem expostas ao mundo para além da família. Ou seja, farão amigos mais facilmente e também serão capazes de distinguir melhor quem realmente gosta delas.

Os cientistas das universidades de Illinois e de Nova Iorque acreditam que os bebés não só adquirem um vocabulário mais rico, como “ficam apetrechados com capacidades psicológicas, cognitivas e sociais que formam a base do seu processo de aprendizagem”, tal como afirma Athena Vouloumanos, autora principal do artigo publicado no jornal científico “Trends in Cognitive Sciences”. Isto porque a atenção dada a quem fala com elas é também, e em paralelo, usada para as crianças reconhecerem os pormenores e situações que formam o seu mundo.

 

 

 

 


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